[A] [B] [C]
[D] [E] [F]
[G] [H] [I] [J]
[K] [L] [M]
[N] [O] [P] [Q]
[R] [S] [T]
[U] [V] [W] [X]
- One of two halves of a sensory field (as of vision).
- Anything that is done purposefully to facilitate
learning (Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p. 6).
- Instructional Design
- The systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction
as well as components of communication theory, design theory, media
theory, and systems theory into plans for
instructional materials, activities, information resources, and
evaluation (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 4). The informing principles of Instructional design
can be organized into to two child categories of theories and models.
are organized into situations and methods (Reigeluth, 1999, p. 9).
- Instructional Theory
The study of how to best design instruction so
that learning will take place. (Prescriptive)
- A theory that offers explicit guidance on how to
better help people learn to develop (Reigeluth, 1999, p. 5).
Instruction is related to teaching and education and can be defined by
examining various methods of instruction. Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman best
describe the concept of instruction as instructional approaches.
Instructional approaches are used to “set the general direction or
trajectory for the instruction and are comprised of more precise or detailed
components” (Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p. 31). Some examples of
general instructional approaches identified by Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman
(2009) include problem-based learning, direct instruction in a traditional
face to face setting, experiential learning such as simulation, and online
learning through a web enhanced course. The goal of using a variety of
instructional methods is to enhance the knowledge of learners in a target
The concept of instruction can also be described by using “Gagne’s
nine-events of instruction,” which are instructional concepts used in the
learning environment. Gagne’s nine-events are reflected as follows: “(1)
Gain attention, (2) Inform learners of the objectives, (3) Stimulate recall
of prerequisite, (4) Presenting the content (5) Providing learning guidance
(6) Eliciting the performance, (7) Providing feedback, (8) Assessing
performance, and (9) Enhancing retention and transfer” (Neo, Neo, & Teoh,
2010, p. 22-23). The description of Gagne’s events was used by Neo, Neo &
Teoh (2010) in creating a learning environment that would motivate learner’s
engagement in the content taught within a multimedia-learning environment.
Their finding was that incorporating Gagne’s events of instruction was
effective, because it improved student’s understanding of the course content
and made the learning environment more conducive to student learning.
Belfield (2010) also successfully utilized Gagne’s nine events of
instruction with a target population of learners and concludes that
sequentially following Gagne’s nine events of instruction can have positive
outcomes for the learner.
- Instructional Model
- Prescriptive guidelines or frameworks to organize
the process of creating instructional activities.
- A persisting change in human performance or
performance potential (Driscoll, 2007, p. 37).
- Learning Theory
- A descriptive theory which describes phenomena
which facilitates the learning process.
- “A representation of reality presented with a degree of structure and order . . . typically [an] idealized and simplified view of reality” (Richey, Klein, & Tracy, 2011, p. 8). (Descriptive)
- Science of Learning
- The scientific study of how people learn (Mayer, 2011, p. 3).
- The process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants
(Pearson & Young, 2002, p. 2).
Karnick (2013) wrote that a theory could be defined as a group of statements
that describe, predict, or explain some phenomena (p. 29). This
definition is similar to the one offered by Elen and Clarebout (2007), who
stated that a theory is “an integrated and internally coherent set of
theoretical principles that provides a sufficient basis for empirical
research in which these statements can be tested" (p. 706). Smith and Ragan
(2005) also wrote that “theories are the source of principles” (p. 18) and
describe a theory as “an organized set of statements that allow us to
explain, predict, or control events” (p. 23). Reigeluth (2009) emphasizes
the importance of recognizing the difference between a design (prescriptive)
theory and a descriptive theory. Prescriptive theories are theories that
identify ways of achieving a goal; descriptive theories describe the cause
and effect relationships of phenomena. Hoover and Donovan (1995) identify
the following four uses of theories in social science: 1) theory provides
patterns for the interpretation of data, 2) theory links one study with another, theories
supply frameworks within concepts and variables acquire special significance, and 4)
theory allows us to interpret the larger
meaning of our findings for
ourselves and others (p. 40).
Based on the above research the following definition of the meaning and
purpose of a social scientific theory has been synthesized: a theory
provides a framework from which a coherent set of testable theoretical
principles and constructs can be used to describe, explain, or predict