Table of Contents
- 4MAT (McCarthy, 2000)
- ARCS Model of Motivation (Keller, 1979, 1983)
- Elaboration Model (Reigeluth, 1979)
- Model of Mastery Learning (Bloom, 1971, 1985)
According to Richey, Klein, & Tracey (2011) A model is "a representation
of reality presented with a degree of structure and order, and models are
typically idealized and simplified views of reality" (p. 8).
Harre (1960) identified two kinds of models: micromorphs and paramorphs.
- Micromorphs are physical, visual replicas, such as
a computer simulation or a scale model of a large object.
- Paramorphs are symbolic models, typically using
verbal descriptions. The simplest example of a paramorph is the verbal
analogy. The more common paramorphs can be categorized as one of the
- Conceptual models
- The conceptual model is the type of model likely to be
confused with theory, as it is a general, verbal description of
a particular view of reality. Conceptual models are usually more
abstract than theories that deal with more specific concepts and
propositions (Fawcett, 1989). Typically they are not truly
explanatory, but relevant components are presented and fully
defined. A conceptual model is a product of synthesizing related
research; it is more likely to be supported by experience, or
only limited amounts of data. Conceptual models are analytic in
nature. They typically describe the relevant events based upon
deductive processes of logic and analysis, as well as inferences
from observations. Conceptual models like theories, are usually
general and context-free.
- Procedural models
- Procedural models describe how to perform a task. In ID such
steps are usually based upon the knowledge of what creates a
successful product. This knowledge is usually either
experience-based or it is derived from another related theory or
model. Procedural models often serve as guides to the solution
of specific problems. While most procedural models are verbal,
they may visual as well. A process flowchart would be a good
example of a visual procedural model. The most common procedural
models in ID are the instructional systems design models that
prescribe steps that should be followed in a design project.
Ideally, procedural models would be based upon a confirmed
theory or at least evaluation data, rather than totally upon
- Mathematical models
- Mathematical models are equations which describe the
relationships between various components of a situation. By
applying data from new situations to a mathematical model, one
can simulate the results. To devise a precise formula, one must
have a great deal of data from similar situations, so that the
exact relationships can be determined. Mathematical models can
play several roles. The typical function is to reflect the
tenets of a theory in a quantitative fashion. Thus, mathematical
models become highly abstract, even as they are highly precise.
They are always dependent upon a narrative description for full
explanation. There are few mathematical models currently
relating to ID, although mathematical modeling is an important
method of theory construction in other social sciences, such as
economics and political science.
Model of Mastery Learning
Learning for mastery or mastery learning, are terms coined
by Benjamin Bloom in 1968 and 1971 respectively. Bloom hypothesized that a
classroom with a mastery learning focus as opposed to the traditional form
of instruction would reduce the achievement gaps between varying groups of
students (Guskey 2007). In Mastery learning, "the students are helped to
master each learning unit before proceeding to a more advanced learning
(Bloom 1985) in contrast to "conventional instruction" (Wikipedia).