The Art of Instruction logo.

Task Analysis

Page Index

  1. Goal Analysis
    1. Information-processing
      1. Dissecting Goals Into Component Parts
    2. Pre-requisite analysis
  2. Determine Types of Learning Outcomes Goals Represent
    1. Declarative Knowledge
      1. Recall, Recognize, or State
    2. Intellectual Skills
      1. Discriminations
      2. Concepts
      3. Principles
      4. Procedures
      5. Problem Solving
    3. Learning Strategies(Weinstein & Mayer, 1986)
      1. Cognitive Domain Strategies
        1. Organizing Strategies
        2. Elaborating Strategies
        3. Rehearsing Strategies
        4. Comprehension Monitoring Strategies
      2. Affective Domain Strategies (Support Strategies)
        1. Time Management
        2. Stress Reduction Techniques
        3. Positive Self-talk
    4. Attitudes
    5. Psychomotor Skills
  3. Write Learning Objectives
    1. Terminal Behavior
    2. Conditions
    3. Criterion

Goal Analysis

Learning consists of both a performance and a content component (Merrill, 1994).

Performance types:

  • Remember is that performance requiring the student to search memory in order to reproduce or recognize some item of information previously known” (Merrill, 1994, p. 112).
  • “Use is that performance that requires the student to apply some abstraction to a specific case” (Merrill, 1994, p. 112).
  • “Find is that performance that requires the student to derive or invent a new abstraction” (Merrill, 1994, p. 112).

Content types:

  • “Facts ar arbitrarily associated pieces of information such as a proper name, a date, an event, the name of a place, or the symbols used to name particular objects, parts, or events” (Merril, 1994).
  • Concepts are groups of objects, events, or symbols, that all share some common characteristic and that are identified by the same name. Most of the words in any language identify concepts” (Merril, 1994).
  • Procedures are an ordered sequence of steps necessary for the learner to accomplish some goal, solve a particular class of problem, or produce some product” (Merril, 1994).
  • Principles are explanations or predictions of why things happen in the world. Principles are those cause-and-effect or correational relationships that are used to interpret events or processes” (Merril, 1994).

Learning Task Analysis

Smith & Ragan

  1. Declarative Knowledge (p. 79)
  2. Intellectual Skills (p. 80-81)
    • Discriminations
    • Concepts
    • Principles
    • Procedures
    • Problem Solving
  3. Cognitive Strategies (Learning Strategies) (p. 81)
  4. Attitudes (p. 82)
  5. Psychomotor Skills (p. 82)

Merrill (p. 49)

  1. Emotional (Signal Learning)
  2. Topographic (Stimulus Response)
  3. Chaining
  4. Complex Skill
  5. Naming
  6. Serial Memory (verbal association)
  7. Discrete Memory (multiple discrimination)
  8. Classification (concept learning)
  9. Analysis (Principle Learning
  10. Problem Solving (heuristics [Martinez])


  1. Intellectual Skills
    • Concepts
    • Discriminations
    • High-order Rules
    • Procedures
  2. Verbal Information (Declarative Knowledge)
  3. Motor Skills
  4. Attitudes

Rothwell & Kazanas

Task Types (p. 140)

  1. Procedural (Action)
  2. Process
  3. Troubleshooting
  4. Mental (cognitive)

Content Types (p. 149)

  1. Fact (Declarative Knowledge)
  2. Concept (Category of items that share a common chracteristic)
  3. Process (Steps for an organization)
  4. Procedure (Steps for an individual)
  5. Principle (Relationships among concepts)