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 First Principles of Instruction

Table of Contents

  • Demonstration Principle
  • Application Principle
  • Task-Centered Principle
  • Activation Principle
  • Integration Principle

Demonstration Principle

The Demonstration principle is appropriate for concept classification (kinds of), carrying out a procedure (how-to), and predicting consequences or finding faulted conditions in the execution of a process (what-happens) (Merrill, 2009, in Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman).

Application Principle

  • Learning is promoted when learners engage in application of their newly acquired knowledge or skill that is consistent with the type of content being taught.
  • Learning from an application is effective only when learners receive intrinsic or corrective feedback.
  • Learning from an application is enhanced when learners are coached and when the coaching is gradually withdrawn for each subsequent task.
  • Learning from an application is enhanced by peer-collaboration.

(Merrill, 2009, in Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman)

Task-Centered Principle

Example of a task-centered instructional strategy.

(Merrill, 2009, in Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman)

The four-phase cycle of instruction.

(Merrill, 2009, in Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman)